دوشنبه , ۳۱ تیر ۱۳۹۸
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Yazd province

Yazd province

Some of the most magnificent and brightest Iranian cultural heritage and ancient civilization in various historical periods are accommodated in the land of Yazd.

The human have lived here since 3000 BC as the nomads who had migrated from Balkh to Pars and have been called Yazdan, from that time Yazd was called as a worshiping place.

The most important accommodation centers were Mirpadeen (Mehriz), Fahrashan, Pahreh(Fahraj), Khormish, Ardakan, Shavaz, Ghala-e-Mobadan (Meibod), Toranj, Aghda and Eshkazr.

Yazd was the holy city among all of the  above mentioned. With looking to Yazd environment, could find the green valleys, the amazing country sides, the beautiful springs, mountains and caves, wild life hunting grounds and especially the desert alteration.

Many of these places are using as playground for the people.

Cultural dimensions of Yazd are remarkable since you could find various cultural behaviors among the people, especially Zorostrians with an ancient history, they hold special ceremonies on especial days which are interesting for other religions.

Geography

Yazd is located in central district of Iranian plateau in latitudes of 29° and 52° to 32° and 27° in north and in longitudes of 52° and 35° to 56° and 37° in east.

Yazd with area of 31575 km2 is the fourth province in Iran and locates between Semnan in north, Isfahan in west, Khorasan-e- Razavi in east, Kerman and South Khorasan in east,

Yazd has high and low heights, between 666m from sea level (Rig Zarrin desert near of Aghda) to 4075 m (Shirkooh peak)

Yearly rainfall average is 50-100 mm. There is a big temperature fluctuation in winter and summer even in day and night, maximum is +45° C and minimum is -20° C, daily average is 7/20° C to 9/11° C .

Yazd is a desert province with population of 983052 person, 785213 as urban and 197839 person as rural population, according to census statistics in 2006.

Yazd includes 10 cities, 23 towns, 20 districts, 51 rural districts and about 5000 villages which 1323 village is residential and the rest are haunted since of immigration.

Some of the towns are as follow: Abarkooh, Ardakan, Bafgh, Taft, Khatam, Sadough, Tabas, Mehriz, Meibod and Yazd.

Yazd city with the area of 2441 Km2 is the capital and is located in center of the province.

There are two separated mountains in Yazd, Central one with direction of western-north to eastern-south and passes from center and the second mountain is located in central, northern and eastern part of the province.

Shirkooh mountain separates the central and western parts (Abarghou Pit), covered with snow and provides Taft and Mehriz cities with water.

 

Indigenous Culture  

Yazd with an ancient culture has been located between Pars, Isfahan, Kerman and Khorasan. This province is an ancient road for historical eras.

As Yazd was an impassable land and there was no enough water resource, never be captured by enemies. According to reliable documents, this region was a residential one from many years ago.

There are many ancient and cultural signs which approves that Yazd was a civilized city before and after of Islamic era.

Some of them are as follow:

Signs of Mehr and Anahita, Isatis and Achamenid, Alexander’s prison, ancient big fortresses, various shelters, Sassanid elders and priests and many building which going back to Islamic period, for example Mosques, Imam Zadeh shrines.

Culture, Language and Accent of the Yazd People

People in Yazd speak Persian with an especial accent, they have kept many of beautiful Persian words and combinations.  Differences between different accent are visible.

Zoroastrians speak the same language of their ancestors and do their rituals with that language.

 

 

Rituals

  • Public and private celebrations

Majority of people in Yazd are Muslim (Twelver Shia), so many of the ceremonies are holding regarded to Islamic culture, such as wedding, national and religious Eids, Nowruz, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Ghadir, Eid of Mabas, birthday of holy prophet,( Muhammad), Birthday of Imams especially the twelve Imam, Mahdi.

Zoroastrians’ ceremonies are so interesting too.

Wedding ceremony is a multi-step one:

Woo, Vakil Porsan( asking about the girl or boy from others who know he/she), Govah Giran (asking from some witnesses), Aroos Keshan( accompanying the bride and groom to their home in wedding night), Patakhti( tomorrow day of wedding when visiting the bride and groom and give them some gifts).

Monthly celebrations when the name of the day and month becoming same, for example Farvardin Day and Farvardin Month. Magnificent celebrations known as Gahanbarha, Jamshidi, Nowruz, ceremony of the last five days of year, birthday of Zarathustra, holy prophet of ancient Iran.

Khordad day in Farvardin month coincides with sixth in Farvardin month, Ahura Mazda, celebration fire, attributed to Hushang King in tenth day of Bahman month, these celebrations are the most famous ones between Zoroastrians which are being holding so glorious.

Jewish minority in Yazd do celebrating for eight days on the occasion the saving of Israelites by Moses at Hadash Synagogue.

 

Public and Private Mourning

 

Nakhlbardry (Coffin Ceremony) is an interesting ceremony which has been holding in Yazd.

Nakhl(Palm) is known as coffin of Imam Hossein, third imam of Shiites. Nakhl is a big wood dead in the shape of leaf which is not look like the palm one and has been covered with black fabrics , hundreds of swards, cutlass, especial decorations such as mirrors, fruits, sequins, tassels, colorful silk sheets which are fasten in two sides of the Nakhl.

In the first decade of Muharram month and last decade of Safar month (especial time for Shiites to do mourning for Imam Hossein), the Nakhl has been moved by people and turned around a square for three times and return to its place slowly. People do mourning simultaneously.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts is attributed to the part of industry which has been doing with hand and using indigenous raw material. Handicrafts represents the makers’ creativity.

The most famous handicraft of Yazd are as follow:

Carpet, Rug, Kilim Rug, Velvet, Zaribaft (Brocade Fabric Texture), Chador Shab, Ghanaviz, Shamad (bed sheet), Cashmere, Curtain, Zilu (kind of carpet), roofarshi (protect carpet), Carbas (sackcloth), Boqcheh, Gamucha, washcloth, Khoorjin, Blanket, Earthenware, Ceramic, Hasir(Mat), Tile, Giveh.

Carpet weaving, Cashmer knitting, Zilu weaving, Earthenware making, Ceramic and Tile have particular important.

 

Pasty Industry has a long history in Yazd, you could find traditional sweets such as Baklava, Ghottaab, Coconut cake, Cotton Candy, Rice bread, Haji Badam and so on.

 

Local Customs

Adhering to traditions is a feature of Yazd people which could have be seen in traditional ceremonies like wedding and so on.

People of Yazd are honest, convinced and thrifty.

 

Protected regions and hunting grounds

In desert land of Yazd, there are various animal shelters and wildlife habitats where the animal choose their living place depending on their needs. For example in the high lands you could find goats especially in Bafgh and Shirkooh mountains, foothills are sutaible places for sheeps, deer lives in plain land and marginal lands especially in protected region of Kalmand and Baharan.

in lands with dry weather where it’s not available for human, it’s possible to find kind of Gazella Bennettii.

   

Some of the most magnificent and brightest Iranian cultural heritage and ancient civilization in various historical periods are accommodated in the land of Yazd.

The human have lived here since 3000 BC as the nomads who had migrated from Balkh to Pars and have been called Yazdan, from that time Yazd was called as a worshiping place.

The most important accommodation centers were Mirpadeen (Mehriz), Fahrashan, Pahreh(Fahraj), Khormish, Ardakan, Shavaz, Ghala-e-Mobadan (Meibod), Toranj, Aghda and Eshkazr.

Yazd was the holy city among all of the  above mentioned. With looking to Yazd environment, could find the green valleys, the amazing country sides, the beautiful springs, mountains and caves, wild life hunting grounds and especially the desert alteration.

Many of these places are using as playground for the people.

Cultural dimensions of Yazd are remarkable since you could find various cultural behaviors among the people, especially Zorostrians with an ancient history, they hold special ceremonies on especial days which are interesting for other religions.

Geography

Yazd is located in central district of Iranian plateau in latitudes of 29° and 52° to 32° and 27° in north and in longitudes of 52° and 35° to 56° and 37° in east.

Yazd with area of 31575 km2 is the fourth province in Iran and locates between Semnan in north, Isfahan in west, Khorasan-e- Razavi in east, Kerman and South Khorasan in east,

Yazd has high and low heights, between 666m from sea level (Rig Zarrin desert near of Aghda) to 4075 m (Shirkooh peak)

Yearly rainfall average is 50-100 mm. There is a big temperature fluctuation in winter and summer even in day and night, maximum is +45° C and minimum is -20° C, daily average is 7/20° C to 9/11° C .

Yazd is a desert province with population of 983052 person, 785213 as urban and 197839 person as rural population, according to census statistics in 2006.

Yazd includes 10 cities, 23 towns, 20 districts, 51 rural districts and about 5000 villages which 1323 village is residential and the rest are haunted since of immigration.

Some of the towns are as follow: Abarkooh, Ardakan, Bafgh, Taft, Khatam, Sadough, Tabas, Mehriz, Meibod and Yazd.

Yazd city with the area of 2441 Km2 is the capital and is located in center of the province.

There are two separated mountains in Yazd, Central one with direction of western-north to eastern-south and passes from center and the second mountain is located in central, northern and eastern part of the province.

Shirkooh mountain separates the central and western parts (Abarghou Pit), covered with snow and provides Taft and Mehriz cities with water.

 

Indigenous Culture  

Yazd with an ancient culture has been located between Pars, Isfahan, Kerman and Khorasan. This province is an ancient road for historical eras.

As Yazd was an impassable land and there was no enough water resource, never be captured by enemies. According to reliable documents, this region was a residential one from many years ago.

There are many ancient and cultural signs which approves that Yazd was a civilized city before and after of Islamic era.

Some of them are as follow:

Signs of Mehr and Anahita, Isatis and Achamenid, Alexander’s prison, ancient big fortresses, various shelters, Sassanid elders and priests and many building which going back to Islamic period, for example Mosques, Imam Zadeh shrines.

Culture, Language and Accent of the Yazd People

People in Yazd speak Persian with an especial accent, they have kept many of beautiful Persian words and combinations.  Differences between different accent are visible.

Zoroastrians speak the same language of their ancestors and do their rituals with that language.

 

 

Rituals

  • Public and private celebrations

Majority of people in Yazd are Muslim (Twelver Shia), so many of the ceremonies are holding regarded to Islamic culture, such as wedding, national and religious Eids, Nowruz, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Ghadir, Eid of Mabas, birthday of holy prophet,( Muhammad), Birthday of Imams especially the twelve Imam, Mahdi.

Zoroastrians’ ceremonies are so interesting too.

Wedding ceremony is a multi-step one:

Woo, Vakil Porsan( asking about the girl or boy from others who know he/she), Govah Giran (asking from some witnesses), Aroos Keshan( accompanying the bride and groom to their home in wedding night), Patakhti( tomorrow day of wedding when visiting the bride and groom and give them some gifts).

Monthly celebrations when the name of the day and month becoming same, for example Farvardin Day and Farvardin Month. Magnificent celebrations known as Gahanbarha, Jamshidi, Nowruz, ceremony of the last five days of year, birthday of Zarathustra, holy prophet of ancient Iran.

Khordad day in Farvardin month coincides with sixth in Farvardin month, Ahura Mazda, celebration fire, attributed to Hushang King in tenth day of Bahman month, these celebrations are the most famous ones between Zoroastrians which are being holding so glorious.

Jewish minority in Yazd do celebrating for eight days on the occasion the saving of Israelites by Moses at Hadash Synagogue.

 

Public and Private Mourning

 

Nakhlbardry (Coffin Ceremony) is an interesting ceremony which has been holding in Yazd.

Nakhl(Palm) is known as coffin of Imam Hossein, third imam of Shiites. Nakhl is a big wood dead in the shape of leaf which is not look like the palm one and has been covered with black fabrics , hundreds of swards, cutlass, especial decorations such as mirrors, fruits, sequins, tassels, colorful silk sheets which are fasten in two sides of the Nakhl.

In the first decade of Muharram month and last decade of Safar month (especial time for Shiites to do mourning for Imam Hossein), the Nakhl has been moved by people and turned around a square for three times and return to its place slowly. People do mourning simultaneously.

Handicrafts

Handicrafts is attributed to the part of industry which has been doing with hand and using indigenous raw material. Handicrafts represents the makers’ creativity.

The most famous handicraft of Yazd are as follow:

Carpet, Rug, Kilim Rug, Velvet, Zaribaft (Brocade Fabric Texture), Chador Shab, Ghanaviz, Shamad (bed sheet), Cashmere, Curtain, Zilu (kind of carpet), roofarshi (protect carpet), Carbas (sackcloth), Boqcheh, Gamucha, washcloth, Khoorjin, Blanket, Earthenware, Ceramic, Hasir(Mat), Tile, Giveh.

Carpet weaving, Cashmer knitting, Zilu weaving, Earthenware making, Ceramic and Tile have particular important.

 

Pasty Industry has a long history in Yazd, you could find traditional sweets such as Baklava, Ghottaab, Coconut cake, Cotton Candy, Rice bread, Haji Badam and so on.

 

Local Customs

Adhering to traditions is a feature of Yazd people which could have be seen in traditional ceremonies like wedding and so on.

People of Yazd are honest, convinced and thrifty.

 

Protected regions and hunting grounds

In desert land of Yazd, there are various animal shelters and wildlife habitats where the animal choose their living place depending on their needs. For example in the high lands you could find goats especially in Bafgh and Shirkooh mountains, foothills are sutaible places for sheeps, deer lives in plain land and marginal lands especially in protected region of Kalmand and Baharan.

in lands with dry weather where it’s not available for human, it’s possible to find kind of Gazella Bennettii.

   

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